B&W Analog Photography Formulas by Tim LaytonB&W Analog Photography Formulas by Tim Layton

I created a black and white analog photography formulas page for photographers around the world because I want to make it easy for you to be able to mix your own developers and processing chemicals from scratch. Not only will you save a lot of money, but you will also be able to take total control of your analog black and white workflow and modify the formulas to meet your unique vision.

I suggest reading the basic photochemistry primer below this section to help you get the most out of the formulas and also set yourself up for success. 

By mixing all of your black and white darkroom formulas from raw materials, you have an amazing amount of creative control over your film development and prints.  By modifying formulas, you can significantly impact the look and feel of your prints.  You also know what is and what isn't in your processing chemicals.

You Can Get Unlimited Access to Every Video Workshop and eBook in my Entire Analog Photography Training Library For Less Than Half The Cost if You Purchased Them Separately with my All Access Pass.

Analog Photography Learning Library by Tim LaytonAnalog Photography Learning Library by Tim Layton

 

GENERAL TIPS FOR SUCCESS

  • Use chemically pure materials or your resulting formulas may not perform as expected. If you purchase from the vendors listed in the resources section, you should have reasonable assurance.  
  • Mix all components of a solution in the order listed in the formula.
  • Wait until each chemical is thoroughly dissolved before adding the next component. 
  • Use distilled water and not your local tap water. 
  • Use a proper scale capable of measuring two decimal places.  
  • Try and develop your film and paper at 68F/20C for optimum results.
  • Get my time/temp development conversion chart if you need to deviate from the standard 68F/20C temperature.
  • Use all formulas as one-shot solutions and eliminate the need for replenishing solutions.​​​​​​
  • You may want to read my article on how to calculate dilution ratios on the darkroom. 
  • I wrote a detailed article on how to create archival fine art prints that you may find helpful.
  • I wrote an article about the basics of darkroom chemistry that you may find useful.
  • I wrote a detailed article on how to choose a film developer that would be a good primer before starting to mix your own developers.

SAFETY TIPS

  • All chemicals should be considered toxic by default and treated with respect.
  • Always wear disposable gloves and apron when handling chemicals.
  • Only work in spaces with sufficient ventilation.
  • A face mask and eye protection is strongly encouraged.
  • Immediately wash any body area contacted by chemicals.
  • Never eat, drink, or smoke while handling or using chemicals.
  • Store all chemicals in a safe and cool area that is dark and out of range for children.
  • Chemical containers must be airtight.

Tim Layton Fine Art All Access Pass B&W Darkroom Photography Video WorkshopB&W Darkroom Photography Video Workshop Large Format Photography Video Workshop SeriesLarge Format Photography Video Workshop Series


FILM DEVELOPERS


Ansco 17 B&W Film Fine Grain Development Formula

Formula to prepare 1 liter of the stock developer

Distilled Water at 125F/52C 750ml

Metol 1.5g

Sodium Sulfite 80g

Hydroquinone 3g

Borax 3g

Potassium Bromide .5g

Add cold water to make 1 liter

Note: Dissolve in the order given in the formula above.  Do not dilute for use. 

Ansco 17 is a fine grain B&W film developer suitable for most modern-day black and white films. 

I love using it with higher contrast films like Kodak Tri-X and FP4, but it can also be a great option for lower contrast films like HP5 too. 

This developer falls into the soft working, fine grain category.  I think this developer is a good option for X-Ray films too. 

I think Ansco 17 is a good alternative to Kodak D-76.  Many photographers report an improvement in shadow detail.  If you like Kodak D-76, then give Ansco 17 a try and see how it works with your style of photography.

I wrote an article on how to read a film negative that you may find helpful. 


Ansco 30 X-RAY Film Development Formula

Formula to prepare 1 liter of the stock developer

Distilled Water at 125F/52C 750ml

Metol 3.5g

Sodium Sulfite, Anhydrous 60g

Hydroquinone 9g

Sodium Carbonate, monohydrated 40g

Potassium Bromide 2g

Add cold water to make 1 liter

Note: Dissolve in the order given in the formula above.  Do not dilute for use.

The Anso 30 is a B&W X-RAY film developer was originally created for Ansco X-RAY film, Ansco Direct Copy film, and Direct Duplicating film, however, based on the formula, it also works great with modern x-ray film too. 

One of the things that quickly becomes evident when using X-ray film is the management of excessive contrast and this vintage formula will definitely help you do that along with other techniques such as pre-flashing. 

This developer has a long shelf life and so it makes it very reasonable and cost-effective to use for occasional or low volume users. 


D-76H Film Development Formula

Formula to prepare 1 liter of the stock developer

Distilled Water @ 125F/52C 500ml

Metol - 2.5g
Sodium Sulfite (anhydrous) - 100g
Borax (decahydrate) - 2g
Distilled water to make 1 liter

** Developed by Dr. Grant Haist (Kodak) as an alternative to regular D-76

Mixing Instructions

  • Heat 500ml of distilled water to 52C/125F in a clean 1000ml+ graduate
  • Dissolve 2.5g Metol in a separate and clean graduate with distilled water and then add to main 1000ml beaker
  • Dissolve 100g Sodium Sulfite in a separate and clean graduate with distilled water and then add to main 1000ml beaker
  • Dissolve 2g Borax in a clean and separate graduate using distilled water and then add to the main 1000ml beaker
  • Add chilled distilled water to the main 1000ml beaker to make 1000ml at 20C

Tip: I keep a one gallon jug of distilled water in the darkroom refrigerator at all times for this purpose.

D-76H Usage

The D76-H formula can be used as a stock solution or 1:1. I personally use it as a one-shot developer diluted at 1+1 because I believe I get even better shadow detail.

To establish the correct development time for your black and white film, you really should properly test your film to identity the true film speed (EI) and then validate (N) normal, (N+) expanded, and (N-) contracted development times.

If you are a roll film user or you don’t need accurate or repeatable results with your films, use the Massive Dev Chart development times for D-76 as a good starting place. Since D-76 is the standard for all B&W film developers, the technical information sheet for your specific film will have a suggest development time.

A good strategy is to rate your roll film at two-thirds or one-half box speed and develop for 10% less than the suggest time.

I have tested HP5+ in D-76H using my Jobo CPP-3 processor and determined EI rating to be 200 with a N (normal) development time of 7 minutes.

CLASSIC D-76 Formula (with Hydroquinone)

Distilled Water @ 125F/52C 750ml
Metol 2g
Sodium Sulfite (anhydrous) 100g
Hydroquinone 5g
Borax (granular) 2g
Cold water to make 1 liter


D-23 & DD-23 Film Developers

D-23 was originally intend to be a simplified replacement for D-76. Just like the D-76H formula, D-23 does not contain hydroquinone, which is known for its high contrast effects.

D-23 is also missing the accelerant (borax), making it a slightly slower developer than D-76H, which translates to a lower likelihood of blown out highlights.

I provide single bath (D-23) and divided-bath (DD-23) formulas.

The single bath formula is effectively D-76H without the accelerant (borax).

The divided bath formula is a great option for large format users that want a compensating effect or to reduce contrast of X-Ray films.

I have found D-23 to work almost identical to D-76H when used as a single bath developer. If you need a lower contrast developer, then dilute D-23 to 1+1 or even 1+2 or use it as a two-bath developer.

D-23 also falls into the solvent (fine grain) developer category, just like D-76H.

Hydroquinone is used in a developer formula to speed up development. I think borax is a better choice for this and for the the environment too and is another reason I use the D-76H and D-23 formulas in my own work.
 

D-23 creates negatives that allow you to print brilliant highlights with open shadows.

The D-23 Film Developer Formula

Metol - 7.5g
Sodium Sulfite (anhydrous) - 100g
Distilled water to make 1 liter

Mixing Instructions

  • Heat 500ml of distilled water to 52C/125F in a clean 1000ml+ graduate
  • Dissolve 7.5g Metol in a separate and clean graduate with distilled water and then add to main 1000ml beaker
  • Dissolve 100g Sodium Sulfite in a separate and clean graduate with distilled water and then add to main 1000ml beaker
  • Add chilled distilled water to the main 1000ml beaker to make 1000ml at 20C.


D-23 Usage

The D-23 formula can be used as a stock solution or 1:1. I personally use it as a one-shot stock developer. Test with your style of photography to establish your personal preferences.

To establish the correct development time for your black and white film, you really should properly test your film to identity the true film speed (EI) and then validate (N) normal, (N+) expanded, and (N-) contracted development times.

I primarily use D-23 for negatives when I want excellent separation of shadow values and brilliant highlights.

I can use the divided-bath formula that includes borax to increase contrast and density for my platinum and AZO printing based on development times in each bath.

I find D-23 to be a very versatile developer whether you and making straight silver gelatin contact prints or enlargements or you need more contrast and density for alternative printing processes such as platinum and AZO.

DD-23 (Divided Bath D-23) Film Developer Formula

In the DD-23 formula, you add borax back into the formula, but separate it into a second tray versus adding it to the core developer formula like in D-76H. DD-23 divides the developer agent (metol) in Solution A from the accelerant (borax) in Solution B.

There is enough alkalinity in Solution A to fully develop the film as evidenced in the normal D-23 formula without the need for an accelerant. But, by adding the accelerant into a separate bath and altering your processing times, you can open up options not otherwise possible with a single bath formula.

By adding the accelerant in Solution B, you are creating a compensating effect because the developing agent quickly exhausts the high values of the greatest density when the film is placed in Solution B while the low values (shadows) continue to develop.

I think that is incredibly useful and once you find your sweet spot with DD-23, you can create expressive images that I believe you were unable to create before. I like to use this method with large format sheet film in trays and also with X-Ray film.

The DD-23 Film Developer Formula

Developer (Solution A)
Metol - 7.5g
Sodium Sulfite (anhydrous) - 100g
Water to make 1 liter

Developer (Solution B)
Borax (decahydrate) - 2g
Water to make 1 liter


DD-23 Mixing Instructions

Process to Make Solution A

  • Heat 500ml of distilled water to 52C/125F in a 1000+ml clean graduate
  • Dissolve 7.5g of Metol separately in small amount of distilled water and add to the main graduate.
  • Dissolve 100g of Sodium Sulfite in small amount of distilled water and add to the main graduate.
  • Add distilled water to the main graduate make 1000ml

Process to Make Solution B

  • Dissolve 2g of Borax in 1000ml of distilled water heated to 52C/125F
  • Note: the amount of Borax in Solution B is a topic of debate. I tested formulas ranging from 2g to 10g and I settled on 2g for my formula, but I encourage you to investigate and conduct your own tests. You have enough information in this publication to conduct your tests and either adopt my formula or make your own variation.

DD-23 Usage

I have found that my large format Ilford HP5+ and FP4+ sheet film develops to my satisfaction with DD-23.

I frequently use HP5+ sheet film in my 8x10 and 11x14 large format view cameras and FP4+ in my 4x5, 5x7, and 8x10 cameras.

When I process my films in trays, either in my regular darkroom, on in my film changing tent when I am on the road.

For tent processing, I have three trays lined up (Solution A - Solution B - TF-3 Fixer). I have included the formula for TF-3 in this publication.

When I am working in my regular darkroom, I have another tray of distilled water to place the freshly developed negative into before moving to the film washer.

If I am on the road, I just wash my films by placing them in trays and letting them soak and periodically agitate for about an hour until they are fully cleared. If I am in my darkroom, I have a film washer that I use.

Based on the contrast of my negative being developed, normal, expanded, or contracted, I vary my times in Solution A and you will notice that my time in Solution B remains constant at 3 minutes.

Below are my personal development times for FP4+ and HP5+ using DD-23 in trays:

Normal: 10 min in A + 3 min in B
N+1: 12 min in A + 3 min in B
N+2: 15 min in A + 3 min in B
N-1: 8 min in A + 3 min in B
N-2: 6 min in A + 3 min in B

If you are trying to take full advantage of the two-bath compensating effect (control highlights and keep open shadows), then you can explore minimal agitation in Solution B.

This is to help ensure that development only continues in Solution B where it was not exhausted in Solution A (highlights).

Most divided bath developers have the developer in Part A and the accelerant in Part B.

Because of the amount of sodium sulfite in Solution A; your film is actually being developed without the need for an accelerator.

When you move your sheet film to Solution B (borax), this is where the magical compensating effect happens because the developer agent (metol) is quickly exhausted in the high values (dense areas), and the lower values (shadows) will continue to develop. This is the entire reason I use DD-23 as a large format photographer.

This basically means that you are developing for your high values in Solution A and shadow values in Solution B.

You can develop a single sheet of film or multiple sheets at a time using the shuffle method.

Your agitation method will impact your development times and negatives, so keep this in mind when establishing your development times.

For normal and expanded development (N and N+), I place a sheet of film in Solution A and continuously agitate for the first 30 seconds and then 5 seconds every 30 seconds for N development and 10 seconds for N+1 until the development time is completed for this step.

I slowly and gently rock my tray for the entire 3 minutes in Solution B.

For contracted development, I place the film in Solution A and agitate for 10 seconds and then 10 seconds per minute until the time is completed for this step. I then place my film in Solution B and give in just a single rocking motion to ensure the film is below the developing solution. For N-1, I gently rock the tray for 5 seconds every minute, and for N-2, I don't agitate the film at all beyond the initial entry in the tray.

After you start developing your negatives and review them, keep in mind the following two variables, and you can really dial in your process for the types of prints that you like to make.

Variable 1 - If you want to increase the overall density and contrast of your negatives, then extend your time in Solution A.

Variable 2 - If you need more shadow detail, process your film in your normal Solution B time, then place the film back in Solution A for 15 seconds, and then back in Solution B for another period of time. Start with times in the range of 1 to 3 minutes and evaluate your negatives.

After development, I move immediately to TF-3 which effectively eliminates the need for a stop bath and hypo-clearing agent and also significantly reduces my washing times. I can even develop my negatives on the road in my Harrison dark tent which makes this a very user friend solution in my regular darkroom or in my mini-darkroom in my van.


PAPER DEVELOPERS


D-72 Standard Paper Developer Formula

Formula to prepare 1 liter of the stock developer

Distilled water - 500ml
Metol - 3g
Sodium Sulfite - 45g
Hydroquinone - 12g
Sodium Carbonate - 80g
Potassium Bromide - 2g
Add water to make 1 liter

D -72 is very similar to Dektol and can be used in the same way.  This is my most frequently used paper developer. 

The standard dilution is 1:2 or 1:3 at 20C.

For fiber papers, I like to develop for 2 to 3 minutes and for RC papers, one minute.


D-52 Soft Working Paper Developer Formula

Formula to prepare 1 liter of the stock developer

Distilled water - 750ml
Metol - 1.5g
Sodium Sulfite - 21g
Hydroquinone - 6g
Sodium Carbonate - 17g
Potassium Bromide - 1.5g
Add water to make 1 liter

D -52 is very similar to the classic Selectol developer formula and can be used the same way.

Add water to make one liter. Selectol is usually mixed 1:1 (one part developer to one part water)

If you are in search of an expressive print, you can use D-52 and D72 as a two-bath development method.

Develop in D-52 for half your normal time and then in D-72 for the other half as a starting place.

To visually understand the impact on each of your prints you can develop the first print in D-72, and then a second identical print in D-52, and a third one using the two-bath method and then compare them. Over time, you will get a feel for the differences and when to use this method.


STOP BATH FORMULAS


Water/Vinegar/Citric Acid Stop Bath's

All of these stop bath formulas can be used with film or paper.

You may want to read my article on water vs acid stop baths. 

You have a couple options to pick from for stop bath formulas. The easiest method is to use regular household white vinegar because it contains acetic acid. Most vinegar comes at a dilution of 5% to 10%. Read the label, then dilute to 3%, and you have made a satisfactory stop bath. If you don’t like the smell of vinegar, then you can purchase citric acid from a photo formulary.

For critic acid, add 4 teaspoons per liter of distilled water.

Water as a stop is also an option, although keep in mind an acid stop bath prolongs fixer life by maintaining its acidity.

B&W Large Format Floral Still Life Video WorkshopB&W Large Format Floral Still Life Video Workshop Large Format B&W Film Testing Video WorkshopLarge Format B&W Film Testing Video Workshop


FIXER FORMULAS


When you place your film or paper into the fixer, the first reaction is the conversion of unused silver bromide into an insoluble and stable compound. When fixing is completed a soluble by product is formed (sodium argentothiosulfate) which is removed by washing.

You may want to read my article on how to test your fixer. 

Until the 1970's the primary agent used for fixing was sodium thiosulfate, also commonly referred to as hypo. This is no longer recommend to be used as your primary fixer. 3

You can also use ammonium thiosulfate to create a rapid fixer and this is my recommendation for films and as a first bath fixer when you are toning for your archival prints. Ammonium thiosulfate saves a lot of processing time and eliminates the need for a stop bath and hypo clearing bath.

Ammoninum thiosulfate is best used as a 60% solution and is the basis for the formulas in this publication.

I provide formulas for ATF-1, TF-3, and Agfa 304.

ATF-1 Fixer Formula

Can be used on film and paper.

Ammonium thiosulfate, 60% solution 750.0 ml
Sodium sulfite - 48g
Acetic acid, glacial - 36 ml
Boric acid, granular - 30g

Mixing Instructions

  • Add the acetic acid slowly while stirring.
  • Dissolve the boric acid in some hot water in a separate container and then add this as the final element in the formula.

Usage

Dilute 1:3 for film and 1:7 for paper. Fix film for 5 minutes or twice the clearing time and 3 minutes for prints.


Agfa 304 Rapid Fixer

Can be used on film and paper.

Water at 125F/ 52C - 750ml
Sodium thiosulfate - 200g
Ammonium chloride - 50g
Potassium metabisulfite - 20g
Water to make 1.0 liter

This fixer makes use of sodium thiosulfate and ammonium chloride to form ammonium thiosulfate in solution.

Mixing Instructions

  • Heat 750ml of distilled water to 52C/125F in a 1000+ml clean graduate
  • Dissolve 200g of Sodium thiosulfate separately into distilled water and add to the main graduate.
  • Dissolve 50g of Ammonium chloride in distilled water and add to the main graduate.
  • Dissolve 20g of Potassium metabisulfite in distilled water and add to the main graduate.
  • Add distilled water to the main graduate make 1000ml

Usage

Fix paper for 3 to 5 minutes. Film should be fixed for three times the clearing time.


TF-3 Rapid Fixer

To Make 1 liter of Stock Solution

Ammonium thiosulfate, 60% solution - 800ml
Sodium sulfite - 60g
Sodium metaborate - 5g
Water to make 1 liter

Can be used on film and paper.

This is a good formula when used as a one-shot on demand formula and it is what I use the most because it is simple to make, very effective, and saves me a lot of processing time.

This formula is similar to Photographers Formulary TF-4. However, TF-4 is more concentrated and slightly less alkaline. TF-4 has less ammonia odor as well.

Mixing Instructions

Note: you can purchase pre-mixed ammonium thiosulfate stock solution or the dry crystals from various suppliers. The pre-mixed is easier to find. Shelf life of pre-mixed is at least 6 months when not opened. Dry crystals should store for several years.

To make your own 60% stock solution, dissolve 480g of ammonium thiosulfate into 800ml of distilled water. This is your stock solution for ammonium thiosulfate. Keep in mind this is a stock solution and you need to dilute 1+4 for fixing as noted in the usage notes below. 

  • Pour the 60% ammonium thiosulfate into a 1000+ ml gradate and use this as your main graduate.
  • Dissolve 60g of Sodium sulfite separately into distilled water and add to the main graduate.
  • Dissolve 5g of Sodium metaborate in distilled water and add to the main graduate.
  • Add enough distilled water to the main graduate to make 1000ml If you want to make a smaller volume of 1 liter working solution, divide the formula above by 5. For example, use 160ml of the 60% Ammonium  thiosulfate, 12g of Sodium sulfite, 1g of Sodium metaborate, and water to make 1 liter of working solution.

Usage

Dilute stock solution 1+4 for either film or paper or mix the 1 liter working solution as discussed above.

If possible, use a 60-second plain water rinse or a minimum of 5 full changes of water before placing film or paper into the TF-3 fixer.

Fix films for 3 minutes, agitating for a full 30 seconds during each minute. Continuous agitation in a rotary processor is ok.

Fix paper for 1 full minute with continuous agitation in a tray or rotary processor.

Large Format Paper Negative Video WorkshopLarge Format Paper Negative Video Workshop DIY UV Printer Design & Build Video WorkshopDIY UV Printer Design & Build Video Workshop Platinum & Palladium Printmaking with Vellum Video WorkshopPlatinum & Palladium Printmaking with Vellum Video Workshop  


B&W DEVELOPER PHOTOCHEMISTRY OVERVIEW BY TIM LAYTON


By understanding the basics of photochemistry and the relationships between developer components you will have the ability to select and modify formulas to meet your specific needs.

An entire book could and has been written on this topic, so keep in mind I have dramatically summarized the important points in an effort to save you time and help you apply the most important principles. 

When a photographic emulsion is exposed to light, the silver salt (i.e, silver bromide, chloride, iodide) which the light reaches, undergoes a definite, but invisible change to a form that is known as the latent image. The exposed parts of the emulsion gain an activation that makes it susceptible to the reducing action of a developer.  When placed in a developing solution the exposed (activated) particles of the silver salt are reduced chemically to black metallic silver, leaving the unexposed particles of silver salt unchanged. Reduction in this sense is a conversion of silver salt to free silver and of the reaction one or more reducing agents (developers) are necessary.  

B&W Darkroom Photography Formulary by Tim LaytonB&W Darkroom Photography Formulary by Tim Layton The Reducing Agent: You will find a variety of reducing/developing agents used in black and white film photography.  Most of them are too powerful to be used alone because they would reduce all of the silver salt in the emulsion without regard to the latent image. A proper reducing agent must be selected which confines its action to the exposed particles of the silver salt, leaving the remainder unaffected. The most common reducing agents are metol, hydroquinone, and pyro, but there are several others to include Amidol, Glycin, and Rodinal to name a few.  

The effect of the developing agent is largely dependent on the agent used and the way it is used.  You will notice in several formulas that more than one agent is used and in various ratios.  I've realized that a high percentage of hydroquinone is synonymous with brilliant images, while metol produces softer results.  Knowing this type of information can help you identify the formula that is best suited for your photography. 

B&W Darkroom Photography Formulary by Tim LaytonB&W Darkroom Photography Formulary by Tim Layton The Alkali (Activator): In addition to the reducing/developing agent, there are three other components in a developer that play an important role.  The first is the alkali which is ordinarily essential in most developers.  Most developers in use today are neutral or slightly acidic in their normal state, and in this condition, they are not very effective as a developing agent.

When an alkaline salt like sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate, for example, is introduced into the developing solution, something very interesting takes place.  The developing agent forms an alkaline salt which makes the developing agent more sensitive.  It is this alkaline salt that actually reduces the exposed grains of silver salt to metallic silver.  The alkali has a secondary effect on the developing solution which is also important.  It helps the gelatin emulsion swell and thus facilitates the penetration of the developing solution throughout the layer of the emulsion. 

For fine-grain developers, you will typically see a less energetic activator like borax used because you want the grain size controlled (softer development).  Another alkali used is sodium metaborate which is helpful in tropical climates when the target development temperature of 68F/20C is not possible. 

You must carefully weigh the alkali in your formula because too much can cause fog and too little can result in slow and soft development.  

You will find many formulas that use sodium carbonate as the activator because in the monohydrated form it is stable and predictable. 

B&W Darkroom Photography Formulary by Tim LaytonB&W Darkroom Photography Formulary by Tim Layton The Preservative: It is a common event for the reducing agent and alkali to combine freely and easily with oxygen.  Because of this, developing agents spoil very quickly when exposed to air.  To increase their usable life, and to allow the developing agent to do its work on the exposed silver halide, and to prevent the occurrence of stains, a preservative must be added to the developing solution. 

Sodium sulfite is frequently used as the preservative in many formulas.  In developers that require two stock solutions, a slightly acidic preservative such as sodium bisulfite or potassium metabisulfite is preferred.  In some fine-grain developers, a large amount of sodium sulfite is used to aid in keeping the grain size to a minimum.  

Because developing agents keep better in acid solution than in one which is alkaline, it is common practice to use one of these acid sulfites as the preservative in the developer part of the stock solution.  In single-solution developers, sodium bisulfite is never used alone as a preservative, since it neutralizes some of the alkali in the solution and would result in softer development. 

B&W Darkroom Photography Formulary by Tim LaytonB&W Darkroom Photography Formulary by Tim Layton The Restrainer: The fourth and final important component of a typical developing solution is the restrainer, potassium bromide.  The restrainer acts as a "brake" on the chemical reaction of development and keeps the operation under control.  An increase in the concentration of the potassium bromide will result in slower development and too little may cause development fog.

With this information under your belt, starting reviewing the formulas for your favorite film and print developers and see if you can determine the four key components: developing agent(s), alkali, preservative, restrainer.   Next, compare these formulas against each other and see if you can start to understand why it behaves the way that it does. 

Analog Photography Learning Library by Tim LaytonAnalog Photography Learning Library by Tim Layton


DISCLAIMER & WARNING


Tim Layton With Silver Gelatin Large Format PrintTim Layton With Silver Gelatin Large Format Print I do have to mention that if you choose to use any of the information contained on this website or in my guidebooks, it is at your own risk and I am not accountable for the outcome, your personal safety, nor do I guarantee anything by sharing this information.  The lawyers make me say this stuff...   

As with all chemicals, you should properly research each individual component and understand its purpose and potential hazards before using it in your own environment.

WARNING: All chemicals, not just darkroom related chemicals are toxic and possibly harmful in some way if used improperly, and this includes common household cleaning agents and even table salt!  Please read and research each chemicals Materials Safety Data Sheet for detailed information and follow their advice accordingly.  I take no responsibility for any injury caused by the use of these formulas.


Analog Photography Training Library

You Can Get Immediate Access To My Entire Training Library For a Fraction of The Cost.

Tim Layton Fine Art All Access Pass B&W Darkroom Photography Video WorkshopB&W Darkroom Photography Video Workshop Large Format Photography Video Workshop SeriesLarge Format Photography Video Workshop Series

B&W Large Format Floral Still Life Video WorkshopB&W Large Format Floral Still Life Video Workshop Large Format B&W Film Testing Video WorkshopLarge Format B&W Film Testing Video Workshop

Large Format Paper Negative Video WorkshopLarge Format Paper Negative Video Workshop DIY UV Printer Design & Build Video WorkshopDIY UV Printer Design & Build Video Workshop Platinum & Palladium Printmaking with Vellum Video WorkshopPlatinum & Palladium Printmaking with Vellum Video Workshop  

If you would like to connect with me on Facebook, I provide a lot of my behind the scenes updates for my friends and family here.