If you have been around film photography for very long a couple quick observations come to mind. First, things just sound complicated and in reality they really are not. Math is involved so that puts a certain distribution of people in the tank all on its own!
My goal in this article is to show beginning black and white film photographers how to produce good quality black and white negatives when printing in the darkroom without performing scientific testing to establish their personal EI (exposure index) and development times.
Entire books have been written on some of these concepts so keep in mind that I am trying to distil over 100 years of knowledge into one brief article. If you send your film out for development then you are left to the mercy of your lab. You are better than that...
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I am going to discuss how to properly expose for shadow detail in your scene and make the appropriate adjustments on your meter/camera. By employing this simple technique and then following up with some simple techniques in the darkroom you will get good quality results on a consistent basis without scientifically testing your film and development process. This is most applicable for roll film/small format cameras. I like the freedom of roll film, but I know that I am opening myself up to a wide number of variables that can ultimately impact my darkroom prints or even scans for that matter.
Rating Your Film
Based on the subject matter in this article I have to assume you don’t know how to properly test your film for you own personal EI (exposure index) rating and you have no working knowledge of the zone system. The best advice I can give a black and white film photographer that is not using a scientifically tested film and developer combination is to rate your film at half the box speed and then develop for a little less time than the manufacturer data sheet instructs. I am purposely omitting the scientific underpinnings in this statement because this article would quickly turn into a book.
For example, if you are using T-Max 100 then rate it at EI 50 or even EI 80. If you are using Tri-X 400 then rate it at EI 200 or 250. If the manufacturer data sheet says to develop at 6 minutes then develop for 5 or 5 1/2 minutes. Something in the range of 15% is the rule of thumb that I would suggest.
Calculating Your Exposure
For my style of photography, I want to control my depth of field so by default I meter and think in terms of aperture priority. I use manual cameras and use a hand-held spot meter most of the time. If you have a camera that has a built-in spot meter, then try that. I use the built in spot meter in my Nikon F100 with very good results. You may be different and just adjust as necessary.
When you meter your scene with your camera or exposure meter, look for an area that is the darkest area that you still would like some detail in your print (shadow detail). Since your meter measures everything in zone 5 (middle of the scale) you will need to stop down 2 full stops to get your shadows placed on zone 3.
You can do this by increasing your shutter speed by two stops (e.g., 1/15 meter value to 1/60th new shutter speed) or if it fits your creative vision you could change your aperture from let’s say f/5.6 to f/11. In photography lingo, you may have heard this referred to as “stopping down”. It doesn’t matter if you are using an internal meter on your camera or an exposure meter, you should have it set to spot metering mode. You may have a camera that allows you to dial in exposure compensation like I do on the F100. If you have this option, then it makes things very simple.
This is also why when you photograph snow you have to go the other direction. For example, if you have some beautiful snow in your scene that has been untouched by footprints, I would probably expose at + 1 1/2 or + 2 stops.
As a general rule, I try and keep everything with detail between zones 3 and 8. When I photograph flowers against a black backdrop I don’t want or need detail so zone 0 is my target.
If you refer to the zone system scale below all of this will make sense.
So far you have cut your film speed in half and you have stopped down two stops from your shadow detail spot meter reading. Now all that is left is to release the shutter and create the exposure. That is all there is to it!
Since you are printing in the darkroom you will want to develop for your highlights first and then work on your shadows. This is where the old phrase “expose for your shadows and develop for your highlights” comes from. This is beyond the scope of this specific article, but this is why variable contrast papers and filters were such a success with black and white darkroom photographers. It is like having several grades of paper at your disposal all on the same print. The goal is to produce a high quality negative with all the detail that you need in order to make the type of print you want. How you get there and how consistently you do that is all about your craft. The more you practice, the better you will become over time.
When you self-develop your film just decrease the time of your development a little and you should be set. For example, if your film data sheet says to develop for 6 minutes then something in the range of 5 minutes would work nicely or use the rule I stated above and decrease by about 15%. If you are interested in my opinion about black and white developers then you may want to read that article as well. If you want to know how to interpret your negatives, then read this article. I try and keep these articles to a managable size, so if you have questions, just enter them in the comment section below, and I am happy to help.
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